City & Guilds Confined Spaces Low Risk (6160-01)
City & Guilds Confined Spaces Medium Risk (6160-09)
City & Guilds Confined Spaces High Risk (6160-03)
Confined Space Awareness
Confined Space Entry (1-day)
Confined Space Entry (2-day)

What is a Confined Space?

Confined spaces are enclosed or partially enclosed areas not designed for continuous human occupancy and have limited access points. These spaces can be hazardous due to poor ventilation, restricted visibility, and potential accumulation of dangerous substances or gases. Examples include storage tanks, silos, vats, sewers, tunnels, and utility vaults.

Working in confined spaces poses various risks and can be dangerous. Some hazards associated with confined spaces include:

Oxygen deficiency or enrichment

Lack of oxygen or excessive amounts can lead to asphyxiation or increase the risk of fire or explosion.
Presence of toxic substances: Confined spaces may contain hazardous chemicals, gases, or vapours that can cause respiratory issues, poisoning, or other health problems.


Workers can become trapped or engulfed by loose materials, such as grain, sand, or water, leading to suffocation or drowning.

Physical hazards

Limited visibility, uneven surfaces, or obstacles in confined spaces increase the risk of falls, trips, or injuries.
Machinery or equipment risks: Some confined spaces contain machinery, electrical equipment, or moving parts that can entrap or injure workers.

To ensure worker safety in confined spaces, specific safety measures and procedures should be followed:

Risk assessment

Thoroughly assess confined spaces to identify potential hazards and determine appropriate control measures.

Permit-to-work system

Implement a permit system that ensures proper authorisation, communication, and supervision for work in confined spaces.


Provide specialised training to workers involved in confined space entry, including hazard awareness, emergency procedures, and proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE).


Ensure sufficient ventilation to maintain safe oxygen levels and remove hazardous gases or vapours.


Regularly monitor confined spaces using gas detectors or appropriate instruments to assess oxygen levels and detect toxic gases.

Emergency procedures

Establish clear emergency protocols, including rescue plans, communication methods, and availability of rescue equipment.

Always consult local regulations and guidelines specific to your jurisdiction, as requirements for working in confined spaces may vary.